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Edited by Robert A. Donnelly and David A. Shirk


Book Review by: Dennis Moore

January 13, 2010 (San Diego’s East County)--Yajaira Mota Orozco,a San Diego mother of two children, lost her life while eating at a restaurant in Tijuana. During December, she became the 88th victim of alleged gang and drug violence in a single month, underscoring the theme of a new book edited by Robert A. Donnelly and David A. Shirk, Police And Public Security In Mexico.

Behind the death of 23 year-old Orozco is the escalating gun violence between rival gangs in Baja California. This book is a must read for those of us wanting a better understanding of the dynamics of the relationship between the United States and Mexico, as it concerns the drug culture and violence across our borders. As 2009 closed, 124 homicides were recorded in Tijuana in the month of December alone, making it the most violent month of the year. 2009 ended on a very somber note in Baja California, with the beheading of a state auto theft investigator after he was abducted from his home. Two other men were shot to death outside a tire store and another victim was killed at a taco shop.

As a former resident myself of Tijuana for two years, I saw firsthand evidence of the circumstances that brought about this violence. Robert A. Donnelly and David A. Shirk have taken a scholarly approach in examining this violence through the insight and observations of several authors. This monograph is the compilation of insights from a number of authors, edited by Donnelly and Shirk. The premise of this book seems to be that the continued presence of the military (as opposed to the police) serving as the principal peace providers in Mexico is fraught with peril.

Donnelly holds a Master’s degree in Latin American Studies from the University of California, San Diego (UCSD), and bachelor’s degrees in journalism and history from the University of Georgia. He is Program Associate at the Mexico Institute of the Woodrow Wilson International Center for Scholars in Washington, D.C. As Program Associate, Donnelly manages a MacArthur-funded research project on the patterns and practices of civic engagement and political participation by Latin American immigrants in eight U.S. cities. He also manages the Institute’s borderlands research project, examining ways for enhanced collaboration on joint management by the United States and Mexico. Prior to coming to the Mexico Institute, Donnelly was Coordinator of the Justice in Mexico Project at the University of San Diego’s Trans-Border Institute over 2006-2008. From 1997 to 2002, he worked as a journalist in Mexico, writing for trade publications, wire services, newspapers, and magazines.

Shirk is the Director of the Trans-Border Institute and Associate Professor in the Political Science Department at the University of San Diego. Dr. Shirk received his B.A. at Lock Haven University and his M.A. and Ph.D. in Political Science at the University of California, San Diego (UCSD). He conducts research on Mexican politics, U.S.-Mexican relations, and the U.S.-Mexican border. Dr. Shirk is the principal investigator for the Justice in Mexico Project (, and has been a fellow at the UCSD Center for U.S.-Mexican Studies (1998-99 and 2001-2003) and at the Woodrow Wilson Center in Washington, D.C. (2009-10). Publications by Dr. Shirk include Contemporary Mexican Politics, co-authored with Emily Edmonds-Poli (Rowman and Littlefield Publishers, 2008), Reforming the Administration of Justice in Mexico, co-edited with Wayne Cornelius (University of Notre Dame Press, 2007), and Evaluating Accountability and Transparency in Mexico, co-edited with Alejandra Rios Casares (Trans-Border Institute, 2007).

The body of work of Donnelly and Shirk makes them eminently qualified to give this balanced presentation of Police And Public Security In Mexico, and along with the various authors profiled in this monograph, gives us all a clearer picture of just what is going on south of our borders.

I recall while living in Tijuana the ominous presence of the military driving about in jeeps and larger vehicles, with guns quite noticeable. I also recall the early instances when President Calderon had the military patrolling the streets in Baja California, after guns of the local police had been confiscated, due ballistics tests to determine whether some police guns may have been used in crimes. It got to be pretty comical around that time, as the local Tijuana policeman replaced their guns with slingshots in their holsters.

As noted by the editors, in recent years, Mexico has faced a grave public security crisis. From 2006 to 2009, rampant cartel-elated violence has killed more than 13,000 people, including hundreds of police and military personnel. Given the inability of domestic law enforcement agencies to adequately address these challenges, Mexico has deployed tens of thousands of troops to restore order and combat violent organized crime groups. In addition, Mexican and U.S. officials initiated unprecedented measures to promote cross-border collaboration in law enforcement and security, including the multi-billion dollar Merida Initiative to share responsibilities in fighting the war on drugs.

These developments raise a host of questions about the course of Mexican public security and the prospects for strengthening the rule of law, according to the editors and a myriad of authors involved in this monograph. This monograph brings together the works of nine exceptional scholars who present timely analysis of these questions, provide a thorough assessment of Mexico’s principal domestic security challenges, and offer insights on how to tackle them, again, according to the editors. This monograph is part of the Justice in Mexico Project coordinated by the Trans-Border Institute at the Joan B. Kroc School of Peace Studies at the University of San Diego, and generously supported by The William and Flora Hewlett Foundation and The Tinker Foundation. The Justice in Mexico Project examines key aspects of the rule of law and the challenges related to reforming the administration of justice in Mexico, and provides access to relevant data and analysis through its website:

One of the moist poignant points was made by author Maria Eugenia Suarez de Garay, in her section in the book Mexican Law Enforcement Culture: Testimonies from Police Behind Bars. “It is easier to talk about abuse and corruption in the police world than to unravel their causes,” she states.”The challenge of attempting the latter has led me to dig deep into the core of police culture in Mexico. Setting aside sensationalism with which police matters are often treated, we must remember that the police are ‘manufactured’ products created by Mexico’s own society and culture. At the same time, the existing police culture is a system that communicates, reproduces, and evolves on its own, such that we must delve into the ‘spaces’ within police institutions to better understand police themselves.”

Maria Eugenia Suarez de Garay further goes on to state in regard to Police Criminality: “As Donnelly and Shirk discuss in the introduction to this volume, Mexican citizens have witnessed a seemingly endless pattern of crime and violence over the last decade: the settling of accounts among rival crime syndicates; murders of suspected drug dealers in prisons, while other traffickers are broken out of jail; a trail of murders of women in Ciudad Juarez; and thousands of robberies, rapes, and kidnappings across the country every day. Official discourse about the increase in criminal behavior has implied a polarization between ‘us’ (the good citizens) and ‘them’ (the criminals) (Stanley 2001, 242), which in some cases has led citizens to ‘take the law into their own hands.’"

She revealedl, "particularly bloodthirsty expression of such vigilantism occurred on November 23, 2004, when more than three hundred residents of San Juan Ixtayopan, Tlahuac (a municipality in Mexico’s Federal District) burned two men alive and severely injured another after the three were allegedly caught photographing children outside a neighborhood school. Not only were these ‘criminals’ not intending to kidnap the children, as the parents claim; they were agents from the Federal Preventive Police who reportedly were investigating drug trafficking. Their explanation went unheard. Videotapes confirm that while they were being beaten, the three did indeed identify themselves as police officers.”

The theme of this book seems to be that the local Mexican police can not be trusted, but don’t put too much power in the hands of the military.

Another author in the book, Guillermo Zepeda Lecona, states: “What exists in Mexico is less a model of law enforcement than an inertial pattern of police practices developed over decades in an environment shaped by a hegemonic political system and an inquisitorial and arbitrary model of criminal procedure, with very little public participation. The police, as noted, were relegated to the selective application of administrative regulations and to auxiliary tasks in support of criminal justice authorities.”

Again, not a vote of confidence in the Mexican police! For further perspective, Guillermo Zepeda Lecona states; “Generally speaking, both society as a whole and the authorities themselves mistrust the police, but instead of taking steps to improve the police, the police have seen their functions stripped away piece by piece. The police cannot take crime reports but must wait for information from prosecutors or attorneys before beginning their intelligence and crime-mapping activities. Nor can they act after a crime has been committed because, unless the perpetrator is caught red-handed, the investigation and arrest of suspects is reserved to the prosecutors.

Meanwhile, another Tijuana resident, 17-year old Jose Fernando Labastida Fimbres, was gunned down gangland-style near his home, Augustin Roberto Salcedo, a California school administrator, was among the bodies of six men found murdered in the north-central Mexican state of Durango, and journalist Alberto Velazquez was gunned down in the Mexican Caribbean resort town of Tulum.

This dichotomy can perhaps be best summed up by editor David A. Shirk, who states; “As noted throughout this monograph, domestic law enforcement capabilities are so ineffective that they have been largely stripped of key functions, and public officials have increasingly turned to the military as a last resort to provide for basic order. As observed by Zepeda, the core functions of Mexican law enforcement have been gradually transferred away from local preventive police forces and concentrated in state and federal judicial police agencies. Local police officers, who represent the vast majority of Mexican police, are not authorized to receive crime reports from citizens, are not equipped to conduct criminal investigations, and are not properly prepared to preserve crime scenes and evidence. Moreover, most Mexican police officers lead lives that are terribly impoverished and characterized by victimization, low self-image, and constant disparagement by citizens.”

Dr. Shirk further goes on to state, and this may more accurately sum up the situation in Mexico; “Meanwhile, as Moloeznik asserts, the expansion of the military’s mandate correlates with the public’s negative evaluations of the competence and reliability of civilian police agencies. As Moloeznik notes, the meager results offered by domestic police pave the way for the ‘militarization of public security.’ Among public sector institutions, the military has enjoyed the highest approval ratings in all of Mexico.

Unfortunately, the military is a very blunt instrument, and its involvement has already contributed to significant allegations of human rights abuses. Moreover, the ongoing commitment of troops raises critical questions about whether the military is in truth immune to the kind of corruption found in Mexican police agencies, whether its integrity can be sustained over an extended period, and when its domestic law enforcement mandate will finally end. Indeed, once the military genie is released, putting it back into the bottle may prove difficult.” It seems as if we are between a rock and a hard place as to whether to allow the police to do their job in Mexico, or risk the military doing their jobs for them. At least, that seems to be the assessment of this scholarly book edited by Donnelly and Shirk.

To get a clearer and balanced understanding of just what is going on south of our borders, Police And Public Security In Mexico is a must read that I highly recommend.

Dennis Moore is a member of the San Diego Writers/Editors Guild, a writer with LifeAfter50 Magazine in Pasadena, and a writer and book reviewer for East County Magazine in San Diego. He has written for the Baja Times Newspaper in Rosarito Beach, Mexico, and he is an author with a yet to be published book about Chicago politics, The City That Works. Mr. Moore is also the President of Contracts & Agency, LLC, a marketing and promotions consulting company. He can be contacted at or you can follow him on Twitter at: @DennisMoore8.

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U.S. gospel choir a hit at Casa de la Cultura

Pounding Norteno rhythms typically bring out the crowds in Baja California. But on this night, hundreds clapped, cheered and stomped their feet as a U.S. gospel choir made its debut at Tijuana's municipal cultural center, the Casa de la Cultura.

The two dozen performers were members of the Voices of Faith Choir from Faithful Central Bible Church in Inglewood. They were in town Friday at the invitation of the U.S. Consulate in Tijuana in honor of Black History Month.

"It gave us the opportunity to share a part of U.S. culture that most people outside the U.S. don't experience," said Joe Crook, the consulate's spokesman.

By the end of the night, most members of the crowd were on their feet, clapping in time with the music. Among them was Marco Antonio Labastida, a classically trained, Tijuana-born tenor and guitarist. "The event spoke for itself. People were very happy," he said. "With music, there are no borders. It's one common language."

"Police and Public Security in Mexico"

Suspect in U.S. Agent Slaying Ordered Held: A Judge in Mexico City has authorized 40 days of detention for an alleged member of the Zetas drug cartel suspected in the Feb. 15 killing of a U.S. immigration agent.

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Police and Public Security in Mexico

Dr. David Shirk of the Trans-Border Institute, and editor of this book, stated today; "Our report underscores the dramatic increase and geographic concentration of violence, with 84% of all homicides from organized crime in 2010 occurring in just four of Mexico's 32 states (Chihuahua, Sinaloa, Guerrero and Baja California), but also the spreading and intensification of this violence due to the emergence of three splinter organizations - the Beltran Leyva, La Familia Michoacana, and Zeta drug trafficking organizations - that have broken with the major cartels over the last two years."

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In Mexico there are many drug dealers and I hope the police will stop drug trafficking and to start aid procedures for people with drug addiction and take them to drug rehab Utah this organization helps humanity without discrimination and they will know what to do

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The particular military is an extremely blunt device, and its particular participation has already led to considerable suggestions associated with individual legal rights abuses. Furthermore, the ongoing commitment associated with troops raises essential questions about whether or not the armed service is at reality immune used ladies golf clubs

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should stick to their ipod repair adelaide as there are many murders in drug wars, are they really doing their jobs properly?

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The book examines Mexico’s police in an era shaped by increasing political decentralization, the presence of powerful and corrosive drug trafficking organizations, and a shift toward accusatorial-style judicial reform at both the federal and state levels. The book includes chapters on: 1) crime trends in Mexico, 2) the historical relationship between state actors and organized crime, 3) police structures and cultures, 4) the evolving role of the military, 5) human rights and the social construction of crime, and 6) local-level police reform efforts. Sell Textbooks Online

Police and Public Security in Mexico

Thank you everyone and especially to Dennis Moore and East County Magazine for generating so much interest in the book, as well as for creating this forum for a discussion on police and public security in Mexico.

Truly, Mexico is in the midst of serious rule-of-law challenges, and more needs to be done to bring about authentic reform. But reform of this kind will take a generation (at least) to show measurable benefits, and on both sides of the border we need to help to make long-term improvements a reality. Reforms won't happen overnight.

I'm a believer in the benefits of enhanced transparency, public oversight and involvement, and partisan competition, and Mexico's democracy is consolidating these elements bit by bit.

On the U.S. side, we need to be mindful that in large part it's our demand for contraband drugs that is driving some of the most violent trafficking. And we need to do what we can to prevent the cartels from getting the tools of the trade (guns, cash) that make them such powerful actors in Mexico.

Drug trafficking violence is a shared problem between Mexico and the United States, and, as such, necessarily demands a joint solution.

Robert Donnelly, co-author

"Police and Public Security in Mexico"

I have seen and experienced an improvement in conditions in Baja California, as I currently live in Tijuana. Just this past Sunday I drove with a friend and my landlord from the Tomas Aquino area to Rosarito Beach to a barbecue at another friend's home, and felt completely safe and secure. I plan on going back to the friend's home by local cab in another day or so. I also plan on going there on Super Bowl Sunday with my landlord and next door neighbor, to watch the Super Bowl game between Pittsburgh and Green Bay. I greatly appreciate Robert Donnelly's comments and insight in writing this book. I actually invited and encouraged Mr. Donnelly to come to San Diego for a book signing and group discussion on this timely issue.

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we live in dengerous times. violence has entered our homes and neighborhoods. Children learn to be violent, from TV,what they see family, in games or movies. how we repond against the plagues? violence against violence. it oppressive. but for now it seams that is the only solution. also we can educate our children and punish them when it is necessary. we can treat those who are addicted to drugs useing drug rehab programs . it is a main factor of these violences.

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Well, anywhere in the world is not safe. Criminals, terrorist, etc. have spread all over the world just to kill innocent people. The government have not proved to secure the public security, they all just sit and corrupt public money.

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Drug problem is an important problem of our time. As Mexico grapples with a lengthy and increasingly bloody drug war, tunes glorifying drug runners, gang enforcers and narcotics cartels have emerged as the songs of an era. "Narcocorridos" are in many ways a continuation of Mexico's long "corrido" tradition of lyrical storytelling. But instead of singing the praises of folk heroes these ballads are musical tributes to the generals and foot soldiers in a drug war. DJ Rap

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Since Mexico has the longest border with US and most of the crack cocaine is smuggled through this line a lot of money will blink an eye to the Mexican policemen so corruption will always be an issue here.
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Police and Public Security in Mexico

Obviously, this book edited by David Shirk and Robert Donnelly, are thought provoking, and generating a lot of interest and attention for its subject matter on both sides of the border.

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I'm really eager to read this book after reading this article, cause first of all, it's always nice to read smth interesting, learn smth new. and secondly, cause it's really important to know all those details mentioned in the book (especially if you are a frequent visitor to Mexico) personally I used to listen to many useful pieces of info about it found by search on mp3 , still reading this ook won't be useless to me.

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"I felt like the story about murder,and corruption; on the east side of San Diego anew informative and very well written piece. The knowledge I learned through this review will be a great help if I ever find myself south of the border or thinking about going to Mexico again".

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